What is ADHD?

Published academic research, evidence based information and reference material

What is ADHD? - Evidential understanding of Adult ADHD

Adult ADHD Clinic aims to provide reference material for Healthcare Professionals and interested patients to build on their knowledge and to support greater evidential understanding of adult ADHD as a specific mental health condition. We will add to this section as more reference material becomes available.

What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Definition of ADHD

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 5th edition American Psychiatric Association 2013 Pages 59-60.

Guidelines on the treatment of ADHD

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guideline March 2018. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management [NG87].

British Association for Psychopharmacology, Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Update on recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology 1–25 2014 Bolea-Alamañac B, Nutt DJ, Adamou M, Asherson P et al.

European Network Adult ADHD. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Kooij SJJ, Bejerot S, Blackwell A, Caci H et al.
BMC Psychiatry 2010 10:67

Canadian ADHD practice guidelines (CADDRA. Third Edition, Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance 2011.

The evidence for ADHD medication

Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Cortese S, Adamo N, Del Giovane C, Mohr-Jensen C et al Lancet Psychiatry 2018; 5: 727–38 Published Online August 7, 2018.

Methylphenidate treatment of adult male prison inmates with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension Ginsberg et al., Br J Psychiatry 2012; vol 200: issue 1: 68-73

Self-Reported quality of life in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and executive function impairment treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Adler L, Dirks B, Deas P, Raychaudhuri A et al BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:253

Once-Daily Atomoxetine for Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 6-Month, Double-Blind Trial Adler et al., Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2009; 29: 44-50

Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social anxiety disorder Adler et al., Depression & Anxiety 2009; 26: 212-221

Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with ADHD Adler et al., J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 1364-73

Putting the efficacy of psychiatric and general medicine medication into perspective: review of meta-analyses Leucht et al., Br J Psychiatry 2012; 200: 97-106

A comparison of the efficacy of medications for adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder using meta-analysis of effect sizes
Faraone & Glatt, J Clin Psychiatry 2010; 71: 754-63

Comparing Guanfacine and Dextroamphetamine for the Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Taylor FB & Russo J Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology: April 2001 - Volume 21 - Issue 2 - p 223-228

The wider benefits of treating ADHD (beyond reduction of ADHD symptoms)

Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality. Lichtenstein P, Halldner L, Zetterqvist J, Sjölander A et al N Engl J Med. 2012; 22; 367(21): 2006-14

Association Between Medication Use for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes. Chang Z, Quinn PD, Hur K, Gibbons RD et al JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;74(6):597-603

Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden. Chang et al Lancet Psychiatry Vol 2; issue 10; p891-900 Oct 2015

Medication for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk for Depression: A Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort Study Chang et al Biological Psychiatry volume 80, issue 12, December 2016, Pages 916-922

Drug Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study Chen at al British Medical Journal 2014; 348 June 2014

Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study Chen at al Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Volume 57, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages 48-53

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and seizures Wiggs et al Neurology March 2018; 90 (13)

Association Between Medication Use and Performance on Higher Education Entrance Tests in Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Lu et al JAMA Psychiatry 2017; 74: 815-822

Driving advice and ADHD

DVLA Assessing fitness to drive: a guide for medical professionals.

Impairment and ADHD

Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer TJ, Mick E, Monuteaux MC, Aleardi M. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;67(4):524-40.

Cross -national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Fayyad J, De Graaf R, Kessler R, Alonso J et al Br J Psychiatry. 2007 May;190:402-9

Prevalence of ADHD in adults

The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis, Polanczyk G, Silva de Lima M, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164:942–948

Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. Simon V, Czobor P, Balint S, Meszaros A, Bitter I. Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Mar;194(3):204-211

The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow up studies. Farone SV, Biederman J, Mick E. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 159-65

Autism and ADHD

Evidence for the overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. Ronald A, Simoniff E, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49(5):535-42.

The familial co-aggregation of ASD and ADHD: a register-based cohort study. Ghirardi L, Brikell I, Kuja-Halkola R, Freitag CM et al, Molecular Psychiatry 23(2), 2018, pages 257–262

Prescribing and ADHD Renoux et al., Br J Clin Pharmacol 2016; 82: 858-68

About Adult ADHD Clinic

Dr Cubbin’s passion for ADHD has been developed in response to the growing understanding that this condition has been misunderstood, ignored and under-represented for too long.

Contact Us

For all professional enquiries relating to talks, events, research information or patient referrals please call 0845 5280 898 or email

For patient referrals, we will provide our secure address on request.

Information for patients

If you suspect you have ADHD, or need to learn more about the symptoms, impact and affects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, you may find our non-healthcare professional pages more beneficial.

Peer-to-peer talks, presentations and ADHD information share

Adult ADHD Clinic regularly delivers face-to-face knowledge share, ADHD information and best practice strategies to General Practitioners and other Healthcare professionals throughout the UK. 

Published academic research, evidence based information and reference material

Adult ADHD Clinic aims to provide reference material for Healthcare Professionals and interested patients to build on their knowledge and to support greater evidential understanding of adult ADHD as a specific mental health condition.

The highest quality of patient evaluation, screening, treatment and care

Adult ADHD Clinic is primarily a dedicated, expert, psychiatry-based front line healthcare service. We ensure that people who are referred by their GP’s are seen well within NHS and most other private providers appointment waiting times. 

Adult ADHD Clinic is dedicated to providing the highest quality of information, clinical assessments and treatments for ADHD in adults.

Correspondence address:

Adult ADHD Clinic
The Manor Hospital
Beech Road

Tel: 07887 640 102
and 0845 5280 898

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